Viernes, 02 Octubre 2020 09:04

Combatir la pobreza infantil

Tribunal de Cuentas. Informe Especial 20/2020. Combatir la pobreza infantil: se requiere orientar mejor el apoyo de la Comisión (DOUE C 325/13, 2.10.2020)

La pobreza infantil sigue siendo un problema grave en la UE, ya que casi uno de cada cuatro niños se encuentra en riesgo de pobreza o exclusión social. Los estudios han señalado reiteradamente que las inversiones realizadas durante la infancia con un coste financiero relativamente bajo pueden producir toda una vida de beneficios.

Decidimos realizar esta auditoría puesto que la lucha contra la pobreza infantil es todavía un desafío en muchos Estados miembros. Nuestro objetivo era determinar si la Comisión había contribuido eficazmente a los esfuerzos de los Estados miembros para reducir la pobreza infantil.

Constatamos que la pertinencia de sus instrumentos no vinculantes jurídicamente es limitada por naturaleza, pero dispone de herramientas más potentes. Sin embargo, la falta de información disponible relacionada directamente con la pobreza infantil significa que era difícil, si no imposible, evaluar su contribución efectiva a los esfuerzos de los Estados miembros para reducir la pobreza infantil.

CoverAt the margin: By how much do social transfers reduce material deprivation in Europe ?

Since the adoption of the Europe 2020 social inclusion target, the population at risk of poverty or social exclusion has not decreased sufficiently to meet the target in EU countries. It is therefore important to evaluate the role and effectiveness of the policies adopted to combat income poverty and social exclusion in Europe. This paper takes a regression-based approach to estimating the effects of transfers on material deprivation, using the 32 countries covered by the EU Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) and the new indicator of material and social deprivation agreed at EU level in 2017 (see Guio et al., 2017). It thereby complements established methods using income to evaluate policy impacts. The approach has broader applicability, suited to social indicators whose scaling has similar properties, such as housing deprivation indicators. This paper is the first to estimate and compare the average marginal effect (AME) of a small income transfer across the 32 EU-SILC countries. It finds that the impact of social transfers on material deprivation is higher at lower living standards, an effect that is present both within and across countries and underlines the importance of a progressive social transfer system. It further finds that households receiving non-pension transfers would experience, on average, the largest decrease in material deprivation. In many Eastern European countries, receivers of pension transfers would also see above population average reductions in material deprivation. A comparison of the Baltic States illustrates how factors other than the national social transfer system and living standards studied here play a role in explaining cross-national differences in AME. The paper further calculates the predicted effects of such increases in social transfers on the EU’s official material deprivation rate and social spending levels. From an econometric point of view, this paper offers new methodological insights, by systematically comparing the performance of count data models (Poisson, negative binomial and zero-inflated negative binomial) and ordered regression models (ordered logit and generalized ordered logit) to predict the material deprivation distribution. It finds that ordered logit models systematically outperform the count models. [+]

BannerLos nuevos pobres: Cuando trabajar no es suficiente, un documental de Karin de Miguel Wessendorf y Valentin Thurn para Arte TV (Alemania, 2019). 

Paro, precariedad, falsos autónomos y trabajos basura. Un tercio de los europeos, activos o jubilados, vive en una creciente inseguridad económica. Este documental evidencia la urgente necesidad de medidas para salvar una sociedad al borde del precipicio. Disponible hasta el 3 de abril de 2020. | Arte TV, 5.3.2020

CoverMicro- and macro-drivers of child deprivation in 31 European countries — 2020 edition

This paper analyses child deprivation in 31 European countries, using the scale officially adopted in March 2018 to measure child-specific deprivation at EU level. It combines single level and multilevel models to get a full picture of child deprivation drivers in EU countries. With regard to within-country differences, our results confirm the combined impact of variables related to the “longer-term command over resources” and variables indicating “household needs”. However, our results also show that the relationship of these variables with child deprivation differs between countries. In the richest countries, the explanatory power of the variables related to household needs is the largest, whereas in the most deprived countries, the explanatory power of resource variables is generally greater. With regard to between-country differences, the specification of the model needs careful consideration. We argue that multilevel models should include household income at the micro level, if the aim is to fully gauge the impact of households’ “longer-term command over resources” at the micro level. The multilevel model then assesses how much country-level features that are not reflected in household income and other individual characteristics at the micro level contribute to explaining differences across countries in deprivation. We find that public spending on in-kind social benefits is significant in this respect. Public spending on cash transfers plays only a limited role, when household incomes at the micro level are included; they play a significant role when household income is excluded. This does not diminish the importance of cash transfers in fighting child deprivation, but it qualifies the conclusions of papers which have analysed the relationship of social transfers on deprivation, using multilevel models but without controlling for individual household income. Finally, we find a significant relationship of GDP per capita, even when individual household incomes are included. This is not self-evident: it shows that GDP per capita is a proxy for important contextual variables which are not reflected in individual incomes and other individual characteristics. [+]

Revising the EU material deprivation variables
Luxemburgo: Oficina de Publicaciones de la Unión Europe, 2017
In March 2017, the European Union (EU) adopted a new indicator of “material and social deprivation”. This measure was developed by Guio et al (2012) and covers the entire population of the 28 EU Member States. It includes 13 deprivation items and replaces the 9-item “standard” material deprivation index adopted in 2009, by the then 27 EU countries and the European Commission, to monitor progress in the fight against poverty and social exclusion at national and EU level. Drawing on the methodology developed in the context of the 1999 “Poverty and Social Exclusion in the UK Survey”, Guio, Gordon and Marlier (2012) proposed an analytical framework for producing a suitable, valid, reliable and additive deprivation measure for the EU. Their recommendations were based on analyses of the 2009 EU-SILC material deprivation module. This report extends these analyses using the 2014 EU-SILC data and demonstrates that the composition of the new material and social deprivation indicator remains optimal over a five year period of considerable socio-economic change. [+]

CoverRevising the EU material deprivation variables
Anne-Catherine Guio, David Gordon, Hector Najera, Marco Pomati

In March 2017, the European Union (EU) adopted a new indicator of “material and social deprivation”. This measure was developed by Guio et al (2012) and covers the entire population of the 28 EU Member States. It includes 13 deprivation items and replaces the 9-item “standard” material deprivation index adopted in 2009, by the then 27 EU countries and the European Commission, to monitor progress in the fight against poverty and social exclusion at national and EU level. Drawing on the methodology developed in the context of the 1999 “Poverty and Social Exclusion in the UK Survey”, Guio, Gordon and Marlier (2012) proposed an analytical framework for producing a suitable, valid, reliable and additive deprivation measure for the EU. Their recommendations were based on analyses of the 2009 EU-SILC material deprivation module. This report extends these analyses using the 2014 EU-SILC data and demonstrates that the composition of the new material and social deprivation indicator remains optimal over a five year period of considerable socio-economic change. [+]

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