Nuevas políticas para cuidadnos en el hogar en los Estados de bienestar europeos
Cuadernos de Relaciones Laborales. Universidad Complutense de Madrid Vol 32. # 1/2014
Desde 1990, los Estados de bienestar de Europa occidental han desarrollado servicios públicos y derechos sociales para los ciudadanos adultos con necesidades de cuidados. También han comenzado a apoyar a los miembros de la familia en sus labores de cuidados. El cuidado informal y no retribuido por (mayoritariamente mujeres) cónyuges o hijos adultos a las personas mayores con vulnerabilidad se ha transformado en formas de cuidado familiar retribuidas por programas estatales como “dinero-por-cuidados” o por municipalidades, los cuales están relacionados de algún modo con los derechos laborales. Como consecuencia, hasta cierto punto los modos en que los Estados de bienestar construyen la relación entre los miembros de la familia también han cambiado. Hasta ahora, la investigación sobre políticas del Estado de bienestar en el cuidado de adultos por los miembros de las familias es relativamente escasa. Este artículo introduce una tipología de “regímenes de cuidado familiar” en el campo del cuidado a ciudadanos mayores, la cual se puede utilizar como marco teórico para el análisis transnacional de las instituciones del Estado de bienestar que están recomponiendo el trabajo de los miembros de la familia que cuidan y su relación con los beneficiarios de los cuidados en la familia. También se analiza hasta qué punto los diferentes regímenes de cuidado familiar se relacionan con las tensiones que se presentan. [+]
Riqueza de los hogares por países: grandes diferencias y algunos motivos
La Caixa. Informe Mensual. # 368. 2013
La riqueza de los hogares presenta diferencias entre los países de la eurozona que parecen sorprendentes. Esto es lo que se desprende de la primera encuesta de presupuestos familiares a nivel europeo que ha coordinado el BCE. Según esta, la riqueza neta mediana (1) de los hogares españoles era en 2008, el año en que se realizó la encuesta, de 182.700 euros. En Alemania, en cambio, tan solo era de 51.400 euros en el año 2010. ¿Qué explica estas diferencias, que, en principio, parecen contradecir la percepción que tenemos sobre la distribución de la renta y de la riqueza en los países europeos? [+]
Income per capita varied by 1 to 4 across EU countries - Issue number 35/2012
Statistics in focus. Economy and finance 35/2012
Household income, consumption and investment in the EU, Norway, Switzerland and the US in 2010.
Household income per capita, corrected for price differentials among countries, varied substantially in Europe: in Luxembourg, Norway and Germany, it was more than 2.5 times higher than in Bulgaria, Romania and Latvia. In the US, income per capita was about 1/3rd above the euro area and EU averages. Between 2007 and 2010, the real gross adjusted disposable income decreased most in Latvia (-20%), Lithuania (-11%) and Greece (-11%), while the largest increases were recorded in Bulgaria (20.5%), Poland (12.4%) and Norway (12.3%). In the EU, the highest gross saving rates were recorded in Germany, Belgium, Slovenia and France (all above 15%);the lowest in Lithuania (1.2%) and Latvia (4.2%). Euro area (13.9%) and EU (12.1%) had higher gross saving rates than the US (9.7%). Households invested a higher proportion of their disposable income in the euro area (9.1%) and the EU (8.4%) than in the US (5.5%). Between 2007 and 2010, the financial crisis impacted on the investment rate mostly in Ireland (-17.7 pp), Estonia (-7.9 pp) and Spain (-5.9 pp). [+]
Internet use in households and by individuals in 2011
Statistics in focus. Industry, trade and services 66/2011
Two thirds of Europeans used the internet on average at least once a week, one quarter have never used it.
The internet has become important for daily life, education, work and participation in society. A large majority of households and individuals make use of it today. Nevertheless there are significant differences in access and usage between countries and socio-economic groups. About a quarter of the EU-27 population aged 16 to 74 years old have never used the internet. Among those who used it, most internet users have searched for information and news, consulted wikis, participated in social networks and bought products online. This issue of Statistics in Focus provides an overview of the latest results from the Survey on ICT (information and communication technology) usage in households and by individuals and takes a closer look at the activities done by internet users. [+]
Regional discrepancies in private household income continue to narrow in 2008
Statistics in focus. Economy and finance 59/2011
Income of private households per capita (in purchasing power consumption standards — PPCS) differed widely across the regions of the EU for the most recent reference year 2008, but the discrepancies are narrowing. Many of the less prosperous regions on the EU periphery have been catching up rapidly since the year 2000, but it is not clear whether this trend will continue. However, early data from some Member States suggest that rural areas were affected by the recession in 2008 and 2009 to a lesser extent than high-income regions and areas with a high dependence on exports. [+]
More than 10 % of households in Romania, Latvia and Bulgaria were three-generation in 2008
Statistics in Focus. Population and social conditions 52/2011
Average household size in the EU in 2008 ranged from less than two household members in Denmark to almost three in Bulgaria. One explanation for these differences is the higher frequency of multi-generational households across eastern, and to a lesser extent southern, Europe. Three-generation households accounted for over 5 % of households in all the eastern European members in 2008, while single-adult households were the most common type in the Nordic countries, Germany and the Netherlands. There are also major differences between Scandinavian countries and southern and eastern European countries in the age at which young adults leave home: in Denmark and Sweden, half of all young men have left home by age 21, while in Greece, Slovenia and Bulgaria, half of all young men still live with their parents beyond age 31. [+]
Household structure in the EU. 2010 edicion
This paper maps key indicators of household structure across 24 countries of the EU. Our main aim is to assess the extent to which the new Member States of Eastern Europe display differences and similarities with the other countries of the EU. We find that the Eastern European countries are rather heterogeneous. The Czech Republic and Hungary are not dissimilar to the countries of North-Western Europe; by contrast, households in Slovenia, Slovakia and Poland closely resemble Southern European households. It is the Baltic states – particularly Latvia – where household structure least resembles structures in any of the pre-enlargement EU countries.
Over-indebtedness of European households in 2008
Statistics in focus. Population and social conditions 61/2010.
Highest share of population in a ‘critical’ situation in the United Kingdom, Germany, Cyprus, Austria and Greece.
In 2008 the proportion of individuals in households in a critical situation (owing an amount larger than the household monthly disposable income) was above 5 % in five Member States: the United Kingdom, Germany, Cyprus, Austria and Greece. At EU-27 level, around nine people in 10 lived in households with at least one bank account and slightly under one out of two lived in a household with credit or store card(s). When comparing the financial situation to that in the recent past, less than one EU resident in five was part of a household that had experienced a major drop in the household income during the previous 12 months. It should be noted that this survey took place in 2008, at a time when the financial and economic crisis could not yet have begun in some countries (see methodological notes/fieldwork period). When asked about expectations regarding the financial situation for the following 12 months, 14 % of EU residents were in households that thought their situation would improve, against 25 % who predicted their financial situation would deteriorate over the year to come. [+]