EU-SILC is the most important microdata source for studying income and living conditions across the European Union. In this paper, we study variations between countries with respect to how individual income components are aggregated into the EU-SILC target variables. In particular, we look at compliance with Eurostat guidelines, misclassifications and omitted income sources, all potentially undermining cross-national comparability. On the basis of a survey among national statistical institutes, we compiled a database which maps the exact classification of income components onto the EU-SILC target variables. The focus of the database is on EU-SILC 2015, covering 26 EU-SILC countries. The database contains information on the composition of variables on total income before and after transfers; income from benefits, work and capital; social contributions and taxes. As a result of this exercise, we outline some general conclusions with regard to (1) cross-national deviations with regard to the calculation of the EU-SILC total income variables; (2) the classification of national income components (e.g. particular benefits) that can be considered “borderline cases” which are currently classified inconsistently across countries; (3) possibilities for improving the definition of target variables; (4) the (unjustified) omission of some income components from EU-SILC target variables; (5) recommendations that may be helpful to improve the comparability of EU-SILC in the future. [+]
Microdata linking (MDL) provides an opportunity to discover new information and to develop new statistics and indicators both when using existing data sets but also when combining with new data collections. The guidelines for MDL gather past experiences and best practices of the microdata linking, focusing on the most recent exercise of linking Business demography (BD) and Trade by enterprise characteristics (TEC) data. The key concepts and sources are described in broad terms. The central role of the Business register is emphasized when carrying out microdata linking exercises.
This publication introduces the rationale and key elements of microdata linking and suggests new angles for economic analysis and support for policy making. It also deals with the benefits and limitations of microdata linking and the main lessons learned so far. [+]
The Statistical requirements compendium, published by Eurostat, serves as a reference document for the EU acquis in statistics. It summarises the key reference information for European statistical production, taking into account new legislation and other developments relevant for European statistics.
The Compendium also serves as the framework for conducting compliance monitoring of the enlargement countries in the area of statistics. The 2019 edition of the Compendium follows an adapted version of the Classification of Statistical Activities (CSA) Rev. 1 2009. [+]
Manual on sources and methods for the compilation of COFOG statistics - Classification of the Functions of Government (COFOG) — 2019 edition
This manual has been developed and agreed by the Task Force on COFOG in response to an increasing interest in high quality, comparable statistics on government expenditure broken down by purpose, according to the Classification of the Functions of Government (COFOG). It is its third edition. The manual covers user requirements, the analytical framework, methodological guidance, links with other international statistics, and countries' compilation practices. In comparison to previous editions, the manual was completely updated, most importantly to reflect the ESA 2010 (European System of Accounts) framework. Further guidance is given by the addition general guidance on the recording of consumption of fixed capital on own-account research and development (R&D) and correspondences among the COFOG classification and economic transactions used in the ESA 2010 framework as well as of sixteen new case studies. [+]
The present fifth edition of the Glossary is the result of the valuable cooperation between Eurostat, UNECE and ITF (International Transport Forum) which put an effort into harmonising transport statistics at European and international level.
The Glossary comprises 744 definitions and represents a point of reference for all those involved in transport statistics. In this edition, the rail, road, inland waterways, maritime, air and intermodal freight transport chapters have been substantially revised. A new chapter on energy consumption has been added and a new accident section has been annexed to the maritime transport chapter.
The Glossary has been translated into all the official languages of the European Union. The use of illustrations aims to provide a better understanding of the definitions, on the basis that one picture is worth a thousand words. [+]
Official economic statistics are uncertain even if not always interpreted or treated as such. From a historical perspective, this paper reviews different categorisations of data uncertainty, specifically the traditional typology that distinguishes sampling from nonsampling errors and a newer typology of Manski (2015, Journal of Economic Literature). Throughout the importance of measuring and communicating these uncertainties is emphasised, as hard as it can prove to measure especially some sources of data uncertainty relevant for administrative and big datasets. Accordingly, this paper both seeks to encourage further work into the measurement and communication of data uncertainty in general and introduce the COMUNIKOS project at Eurostat. COMUNIKOS is designed to evaluate alternative ways of measuring and communicating data uncertainty specifically in contexts relevant for official economic statistics. [+]
The document provides a general overview of methods that are used in Member States for compiling employment flash estimates at 30 or 45 days after the quarter-end. It guides the compiler in the estimation process by following a step-by-step approach. The document discusses available source data, estimation procedures, model strategies, methods for forecasting missing data and the analysis of results. Description of countries’ methodologies, links to available software and references to literature are included as well. [+]
Various actions during the course of 2012 — a paper to the European Statistical System Committee (ESSC), a workshop with national statistical institutes (NSIs) and mapping agencies, and a meeting in Prague of Director-Generals of national statistical institutes (DGINS) — resulted in Eurostat deciding to provide a series of grants to statistical authorities to facilitate work on the coordination of statistics and geospatial information.
The association of statistics and geography has the potential to generate information far beyond the simple representation of data on a map. Linking numerical and geo-referenced statistics in spatial analysis may help reveal relationships and phenomena which are difficult to discover by more traditional analyses of statistical databases. Merging statistics and geospatial information — experiences and observations from the national statistical authorities, 2012-2015 projects presents details of projects enacted with grants provided during the first four years of this initiative, showcasing the broad range of applications that may be developed using geospatial information. [+]
Jointly published by the OECD and Eurostat, the Oslo Manual is a key component of the series of measurement manuals produced by OECD under the title “The Measurement of Scientific, Technological and Innovation Activities”. As part of this family of manuals, it addresses the need to reflect how innovation systems operate beyond a description of the efforts made to invest in new knowledge (captured in the OECD Frascati Manual on resources dedicated to R&D), or the numbers and characteristics of patented inventions (as covered in the OECD Patent Statistics Manual). [+]