The purpose of this paper is to present the reference methodology for the calculation of the circular material use rate indicator. The circular economy aims at increasing the amount of material recovered and fed back into the economy, therefore reducing the generation of waste and limiting the extraction of primary raw materials. The circular material use rate measures the share of material recovered and fed back into the economy - thus saving extraction of primary raw materials - in overall material use. The European Commission has released a framework to monitor progress towards the circular economy. This indicator is part of that monitoring framework and is used to monitor the progress towards a circular economy on the thematic area of 'secondary raw materials'. [+]
Economy-wide material flow accounts handbook
Economy-wide material flow accounts (EW-MFA) are a statistical accounting framework describing the physical interaction of the economy with the natural environment and with the rest of the world economy in terms of flows of materials. EW-MFA is one of the modules included in Regulation (EU) No. 691/2011 on European environmental economic accounts.
This handbook presents the theoretical and conceptual foundations of EW-MFA and provides compilation guidelines as well as possible applications. It primarily addresses compilers of EW-MFA but also the users who are interested in understanding more of the underpinning statistical methodology. [+]
Key figures on Europe presents a selection of topical data. Most data cover the European Union and its Member States, while some indicators are provided for other countries, such as members of EFTA, enlargement countries to the European Union. This publication may be viewed as an introduction to European statistics and provides a starting point for those who wish to explore the wide range of data that is freely on Eurostat’s website. [+]
The paper describes the approaches for dealing with these changes. In addition, the paper discusses the results obtained before and after implementing these changes. Specifically, results obtained with the old system of hazard classification (risk phrases according to Directive 67/548/EEC) are compared with those obtained with the new system (hazard statements according to the CLP Regulation). These comparisons show that the changes observed are not due to differences between risk phrases and hazard statements. Rather, the use of the Classification & Labelling Inventory (also established under the CLP Regulation) allowed the extraction of more up-to-date hazard classifications with a defined methodology. Overall, this revision leads to more robust hazard information compared to the old approach.
The new approach assigns more chemicals to classes of higher toxicity. However, the analyses presented in the paper show that this change does not necessarily translate into higher tonnages for these toxicity classes. The number of substances in a particular toxicity class is often less decisive than the production volume of a specific substance. A change in the toxicity class assignment for a very high production volume chemical may therefore have a higher impact than changes for several lower production volume chemicals. [+]
Compilation of chemical indicators — Development, revision and additional analyses
This methodology paper aims to give a comprehensive description of the way chemical indicators have been developed by Eurostat. It explains the compilation process of the indicators on: ‘Production of toxic chemicals’, ‘Production of environmentally harmful chemicals’, as well as the two related ‘consumption’ indicators.
This methodology paper focuses on the first of these indicators, ‘Production of toxic chemicals’ and explains the methodological adaptations and revisions of the indicators that became necessary due to:
the enlargement of the EU, most recently from EU-27 to EU-28 with the accession of Croatia, changes in the PRODCOM list, and changes in the hazard classification of chemical substances, triggered by the introduction of Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008 on classification, labelling and packaging of substances and mixtures (CLP Regulation), which form the basis of an assignment to a toxicity class.
The paper describes the approaches for dealing with these changes. In addition, the paper discusses the results obtained before and after implementing these changes. Specifically, results obtained with the old system of hazard classification (risk phrases according to Directive 67/548/EEC) are compared with those obtained with the new system (hazard statements according to the CLP Regulation). These comparisons show that the changes observed are not due to differences between risk phrases and hazard statements. Rather, the use of the Classification & Labelling Inventory (also established under the CLP Regulation) allowed the extraction of more up-to-date hazard classifications with a defined methodology. Overall, this revision leads to more robust hazard information compared to the old approach. [+]
Previous research has shown that in the past small firms have initiated a vaster amount of disruptive innovations than their large counterparts. Scholars have attributed this predominance of SMEs to their organizational simplicity, fostering the entrepreneurial impulsiveness in which radical innovations are often rooted. Accordingly, monitoring the SME share in innovative activities has been high on policymakers’ agendas. Since a few decades, patent statistics have been an important indicator of innovation. However, measuring the contribution of SMEs is challenging given the lack of business information in patent documents and the thus required linkage to external financial and ownership information. In the current publication a two-stage methodology is presented to arrive at reliable indicators of the SME contribution in corporate patenting. Stage 1 comprises the matching of patents in a patent database to companies in a financial database, followed by the classification of the patents according to firm siz. Stage 2 implies additional external information sources in order to address missing data, especially with respect to ownership. Results suggest that actual SMEs account for approximately 1 out of every 5 patent applications filed by companies from the European Union. [+]
This leaflet presents key statistics on industry and services in enlargement countries. [+]
Europe in figures – Eurostat yearbook presents a comprehensive selection of statistical data on Europe. With around 480 statistical tables, figures and maps, the yearbook is a definitive collection of statistical information on the European Union. The yearbook treats the following areas: economy and finance; population; health; education; labour market; living conditions and social protection; industry, trade and services; agriculture, forestry and fisheries; international trade; transport; environment; energy; and science and technology. The yearbook may be viewed as a key reference for those wishing to know more about European statistics, providing guidance to the vast range of data freely available from the Eurostat website. Europe in figures – Eurostat yearbook is an online-only Eurostat publication; it is updated on a rolling basis when the main data sets are refreshed. [+]
Water use in industry
Cooling for electricity production dominates water use in industry
Statistics in focus 14/2014
Industry is one of the main water users in Europe, accounting for about 40 % of total water abstractions. Water is used in the production process (e.g. for cooling purposes, for cleaning/washing as well as for employees’ use) and is either provided by a public supplier or self-supplied. Furthermore the industrial sector is a major water polluter, as only up to 60 % (value based on data from eight countries) of industrial wastewater receives treatment before being disposed of into the environment. This article provides information related to water abstraction (volumes of water withdrawn from the different sources), use (water that is actually used for industrial processing, excluding returned water) and wastewater generation by the industrial sector in European countries (EU Member States, candidate countries and EFTA countries). [+]