This report gives information on statutory salaries and allowances for teachers and school heads in pre-primary, primary and secondary public school. The comparative analyses, which includes 41 European education systems, shows an increase in teacher's pay but also differences in salary conditions and salary progression across Europe. Salaries have in fact increased by at least 3 % in 18 education systems. However, real salaries (i.e. discounting inflation) of beginning teachers are lower in nine European countries than in 2009/10 i.e. the years following the financial crisis. Differences between countries concern not only the level of basic salaries but also the number of years’ service necessary to achieve the maximum, which can go from 6 to 42 years depending on the country. Data displayed on the national sheets are collected jointly by the Eurydice and the OECD/ NESLI networks. [+]
How is the school year organised across Europe? Despite some differences, countries show many similarities regarding the structure of their school calendars. In 10 countries/regions, school generally starts in August. The countries where the school year begins the earliest are Denmark and Finland. With regard to the number of school days, it varies between 156 days in Albania and 200 days in Denmark and Italy. In general, the number of school days is the same in primary and secondary education, but there are a few exceptions: in France (upper secondary education), Greece (in secondary education, teaching days and exam days are included) and Serbia for example, the number of schools days is higher in secondary education than in primary.
This report, based on national data, gives an overview on the length of the school year, the start and the end dates, the timing and length of school holidays and the number of school days. It covers both primary and general secondary education and key points are illustrated by comparative figures. The information is available for 38 countries participating in the EU's Erasmus+ programme (28 Member States, Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Switzerland, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Montenegro, Norway, Serbia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, and Turkey). [+]
At a time when the importance of teachers is becoming increasingly apparent, what are the main challenges in the teaching profession related to supply and demand? How do education systems address these issues? How does one qualify to be a teacher? What support is available once qualified? What are the career opportunities in this profession?
The comparative overview of national policies on teacher careers across Europe, which covers 43 European education systems, provides an analysis of different aspects of the teaching profession. The report focuses on primary and general secondary education. The main themes include: forward planning and main challenges in teacher supply and demand, entry to the teaching profession and teacher mobility, continuing professional development and support, career development, and teacher appraisal. [+]
Modernisation on Higher Education in Europe: Academic Staff 2017
OPOCE, 2017. Eurydice Brief
The higher education sector has experienced profound changes in recent years. As student numbers have continued to increase, new steering and funding mechanisms have been established, quality assurance systems have been further developed and societal demands have expanded. Yet there has been too little focus on the impact and implications of these developments for academic staff, who play a vital role in higher education institutions and systems.
The brief is based on a comprehensive report, Modernisation of Higher Education in Europe: Academic Staff – 2017published in June, which explores the realities for academic staff in this changing higher education landscape. The brief focuses on some of the main findings, including on human resource policy planning, academic careers, working conditions, and teaching. It concludes by highlighting three key concerns for policy-making: 'levelling the playing field for academic careers', 'balancing institutional autonomy and government oversight' and 'improving information gathering on academic staff'. [+]
The higher education sector has experienced profound changes in recent years. Student numbers have continued to increase, while the sector has diversified and experienced significant structural changes, such as new funding arrangements, and new quality assurance systems. The challenges for academic staff have also been growing. Staffs are responsible for teaching ever greater numbers of students, undertaking research, and responding to growing societal needs, while academic jobs become more competitive, and job security more tenuous.
Modernisation of Higher Education in Europe: Academic Staff – 2017 explores the current realities for academic staff within this changing higher education landscape. The report focuses on the qualification requirements for academic staff, the recruitment process, employment and working conditions in academia, the impact of external quality assurance, and top level strategies for internationalisation. It also includes national diagrams showing key characteristics of academic staff categories.
The report is based mainly on qualitative data gathered by the Eurydice Network, covering higher education systems in 35 countries. The data collection focused on academic higher education staff who are primarily responsible for teaching and/or research. In addition, quantitative data from Eurostat and the European Education Tertiary Register (ETER) are also used, as well as information gathered from surveys developed for this report to academic staff Trade Unions and Quality Assurance agencies. [+]
In 2015/16, teachers' salaries increased in 24 countries or regions, while they remained at about the same level in 16. Over the last seven years, in real terms, minimum statutory salaries have increased or remained stable in most European countries, although they are still below 2009 levels in some of them.
Remuneration is a key element in making teaching an attractive profession. The report Teachers' and School Heads' Salaries and Allowances in Europe – 2015/16 provides a comparative overview on the minimum and maximum statutory salaries for teachers and school heads in pre-primary, primary and secondary public schools in 40 European countries or regions. It also examines the changes in teachers' basic salaries over the last year and the evolution of teachers' purchasing power since 2009. The report also looks into actual salaries, salary progression and available allowances in each country, including national data sheets with detailed information on all these issues. [+]
Teachers' and School Heads' Salaries and Allowances in Europe – 2014/15
Eurydice Report. Education, Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agency, 2015.
This annual report provides a comparative analysis on teachers' and school heads' statutory salaries and allowances in Europe for 2014/15. It also includes individual country sheets with detailed information on issues such as annual gross salaries, salary progression and available allowances.
The report covers all the EU Member States as well as Bosnia and Herzegovina, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Montenegro, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Norway, Serbia and Turkey.
One of the main findings of this publication is that compared to 2013/14, teachers' salaries have increased in the majority of European countries in 2014/15, with salary reforms and adjustments to the cost of living mentioned as the main reasons. [+]
Is the teaching profession an attractive career choice nowadays? What are teachers' working conditions? How are teachers trained for their job? Is transnational mobility popular among them?
This Eurydice report addresses these questions by analysing the relation between the policies that regulate the teaching profession in Europe, and the attitudes, practices, and perceptions of teachers. The analysis covers aspects such as, initial teacher education, continuing professional development, transnational mobility, as well as teacher demographics, working conditions, and the attractiveness of the profession.
The report focuses on almost two million lower secondary education teachers employed in the 28 EU Member States, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Montenegro, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Norway, Serbia, and Turkey. It is based on Eurydice and Eurostat/UOE data, as well as on a secondary analysis of TALIS 2013, combining qualitative and quantitative evidence. The reference year is 2013/14. [+]
En 2013/2014, los sueldos de los profesores aumentaron en 16 países europeos (BE, DK, DE, EE, FR, HR, LU, HU, MT, AT, SK, FI, UK, NO, MK y TR) en comparación con el curso escolar anterior, según un informe de Eurydice realizado para la Comisión Europea. Las subidas se deben esencialmente a reformas de los salarios y a adaptaciones al coste de la vida. La encuesta abarca a los profesores y los directores de centros de enseñanza preescolar, primaria, secundaria baja y secundaria alta. En aproximadamente la mitad de los 33 países europeos que figuran en el informe, el poder adquisitivo de los profesores1en 2014 aún era inferior al de 2009.
En unos pocos países, a saber, BE(nl), DK (primaria y secundaria baja), LT, LU, AT, FI (primaria y secundaria baja) e IT (secundaria alta), la disminución del poder adquisitivo fue relativamente pequeña, inferior a un 3 %, mientras que en CY, IT (primaria y secundaria baja), NL, PT, RO (primaria) y UK registraron una disminución del 5 al 10 %. En IE, ES y RO (secundaria), SI e IS, los profesores experimentaron una disminución del poder adquisitivo del 13 % al 17 %. El mayor descenso se produjo en Grecia, con una caída de aproximadamente el 40 %. (RAPID, IP/14/1082, 3.10.2014)
Más de un tercio de los profesores de la Unión Europea trabaja en centros de enseñanza en los que no hay suficiente personal cualificado y casi la mitad de los directores de centros de enseñanza señalan que faltan profesores para alumnos con necesidades especiales. Si bien casi el 90 % de los profesores de la UE afirman estar satisfechos con su trabajo, el 81 % considera que la docencia no se valora en la sociedad. Aunque los profesores se consideran adecuadamente capacitados para ejercer su profesión, no siempre se les presta apoyo en las primeras etapas de la carrera. Estas son algunas de las principales conclusiones de la nueva Encuesta Internacional sobre Enseñanza y Aprendizaje (TALIS), llevada a cabo por la Organización de Cooperación y Desarrollo Económicos (OCDE). Esta encuesta, basada en la manera en que los profesores perciben las condiciones de su profesión, incluye información procedente de 55 000 profesores de primer ciclo de secundaria y directores de centros de enseñanza de la UE. La Comisión Europea ha analizado las conclusiones de TALIS y sus implicaciones para la política de educación y formación de la UE en un informe que también se publica hoy.
TALIS recoge los puntos de vista de profesores de primer ciclo de secundaria de 19 países y regiones de la UE [BE (NL), BG, ES, CZ, CY, DK, EE, FI, FR, HR, IT, LV, NL, PL, PT, RO, SE, SK y UK (Inglaterra)], así como de otros 15 países: Estados Unidos, Australia, Brasil, Chile, Serbia, Singapur, Islandia, Israel, Japón, Malasia, Corea del Sur, México, Noruega, Abu Dabi y Canadá (Alberta). (RAPID, IP/14/734, 25.6.2014)