This report gives information on statutory salaries and allowances for teachers and school heads in pre-primary, primary and secondary public school. The comparative analyses, which includes 41 European education systems, shows an increase in teacher's pay but also differences in salary conditions and salary progression across Europe. Salaries have in fact increased by at least 3 % in 18 education systems. However, real salaries (i.e. discounting inflation) of beginning teachers are lower in nine European countries than in 2009/10 i.e. the years following the financial crisis. Differences between countries concern not only the level of basic salaries but also the number of years’ service necessary to achieve the maximum, which can go from 6 to 42 years depending on the country. Data displayed on the national sheets are collected jointly by the Eurydice and the OECD/ NESLI networks. [+]
This report provides information on the structure of mainstream education in European countries from pre-primary to tertiary level for the 2018/19 school and academic year. It includes national schematic diagrams, an explanatory guide and a map showing the main organisational models of compulsory education. The information is available for 43 European education systems covering 38 countries participating in the EU's Erasmus+ programme. [+]
How is the school year organised across Europe? Despite some differences, countries show many similarities regarding the structure of their school calendars. In 10 countries/regions, school generally starts in August. The countries where the school year begins the earliest are Denmark and Finland. With regard to the number of school days, it varies between 156 days in Albania and 200 days in Denmark and Italy. In general, the number of school days is the same in primary and secondary education, but there are a few exceptions: in France (upper secondary education), Greece (in secondary education, teaching days and exam days are included) and Serbia for example, the number of schools days is higher in secondary education than in primary.
This report, based on national data, gives an overview on the length of the school year, the start and the end dates, the timing and length of school holidays and the number of school days. It covers both primary and general secondary education and key points are illustrated by comparative figures. The information is available for 38 countries participating in the EU's Erasmus+ programme (28 Member States, Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Switzerland, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Montenegro, Norway, Serbia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, and Turkey). [+]
The Council of the European Union has set the goal of reducing low achievement in reading, mathematics and science among 15-year-olds to less than 15 % by 2020. How are European countries going to achieve this? One of the key elements in the learning process is the instruction time available to students. In fact, not only the quality of instruction but also the time available for learning can have a positive effect on students' learning process, in particular, in the case of disadvantaged students. This Instruction Time report analyses the recommended minimum instruction time in full-time compulsory general education in 43 European education systems for the year 2017-2018. Special attention is paid to subjects, with a special focus on reading, writing and literature, mathematics, natural sciences and social studies. [+]
At a time when the importance of teachers is becoming increasingly apparent, what are the main challenges in the teaching profession related to supply and demand? How do education systems address these issues? How does one qualify to be a teacher? What support is available once qualified? What are the career opportunities in this profession?
The comparative overview of national policies on teacher careers across Europe, which covers 43 European education systems, provides an analysis of different aspects of the teaching profession. The report focuses on primary and general secondary education. The main themes include: forward planning and main challenges in teacher supply and demand, entry to the teaching profession and teacher mobility, continuing professional development and support, career development, and teacher appraisal. [+]
In an age where the importance of citizenship education is becoming apparent to deal with the current threats to fundamental European values, many countries are implementing changes in their national policies. The Eurydice brief Citizenship Education at School in Europe – 2017 presents some of the main findings of the November 2017 report, highlighting the differences between countries' regulations and recommendations regarding citizenship education that can affect its implementation in schools. [+]
This publication focuses on the duration of compulsory education/training in Europe. It highlights the starting and leaving ages and distinguishes the notions of full-time and part-time compulsory education/training. The information is available for 43 European education systems covering 38 countries participating in the EU's Erasmus+ programme. [+]